Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

v3.20.4
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

NOTE 2 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation

 

The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company’s subsidiaries, Marathon Crypto Mining, Inc., Crypto Currency Patent Holding Company and Soems Acquisition Corp, all of which are dormant as of December 31, 2020. For consolidated entities where the Company owns less than 100% of the subsidiary, the Company records net loss attributable to non-controlling interests in its consolidated statements of operations equal to the percentage of the economic or ownership interest retained in such entities by the respective non-controlling parties.

 

The Company’s consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.

 

Use of Estimates and Assumptions

 

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates made by management include, but are not limited to, estimating the useful lives of patent assets and fixed assets, the assumptions used to calculate fair value of warrants and options granted, realization of long-lived assets, deferred income taxes, unrealized tax positions and the realization of digital currencies.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

The Company considers all highly liquid debt instruments and other short-term investments with maturity of three months or less, when purchased, to be cash equivalents. The Company maintains cash and cash equivalent balances at one financial institution that is insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The Company’s accounts at this institution are insured, up to $250,000, by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company’s bank balances exceeded the FDIC insurance limit in an amount of $140.3 million and $0.2 million, respectively. To reduce its risk associated with the failure of such financial institution, the Company evaluates at least annually the rating of the financial institution in which it holds deposits. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company did not have any cash equivalents.

 

Segment Reporting

 

Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker, or decision–making group in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. Our chief operating decision–making group (“CODM”) is composed of the chief executive officer and chief financial officer. The Company currently operates in the Digital Currency Blockchain segment. The Company’s Crypto-currency Machines are located in the United States, and the Company has employees only in the United States and views its operations as one operating segment as the CODM reviews financial information on a consolidated basis in making decisions regarding resource allocations and assessing performance.

 

Digital Currencies

 

Digital currencies are included in current assets in the consolidated balance sheets. Digital currencies are recorded at cost less impairment.

 

An intangible asset with an indefinite useful life is not amortized but assessed for impairment annually, or more frequently, when events or changes in circumstances occur indicating that it is more likely than not that the indefinite-lived asset is impaired. Impairment exists when the carrying amount exceeds its fair value. In testing for impairment, the Company has the option to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that an impairment exists. If it is determined that it is not more likely than not that an impairment exists, a quantitative impairment test is not necessary. If the Company concludes otherwise, it is required to perform a quantitative impairment test. To the extent an impairment loss is recognized, the loss establishes the new cost basis of the asset. Subsequent reversal of impairment losses is not permitted. The reward for a bitcoin miner changes roughly every four years, or after every 210,000 blocks are mined and gets reduced by half each time, this whole process is called bitcoin halving. The last halving occurred on May 11, 2020 and reduced the reward per block to 6.25 BTC.

 

The following table presents the activities of the digital currencies for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:

 

Digital currencies at December 31, 2018   $ -  
Additions of digital currencies     1,185,227  
Realized gain on sale of digital currencies     36,092  
Sale of digital currencies     (1,220,178 )
Digital currencies at December 31, 2019   $ 1,141  
Additions of digital currencies     4,357,443  
Realized gain on sale of digital currencies     15,466  
Sale of digital currencies     (2,102,394 )
Digital currencies at December 31, 2020   $ 2,271,656  

 

Crypto-currency Machines

 

Management has assessed the basis of depreciation of the Company’s Crypto-currency Machines used to verify digital currency transactions and generate digital currencies and believes they should be depreciated over a 2 year period. The rate at which the Company generates digital assets and, therefore, consumes the economic benefits of its transaction verification servers are influenced by a number of factors including the following:

 

  the complexity of the transaction verification process which is driven by the algorithms contained within the bitcoin open source software;
     
  the general availability of appropriate computer processing capacity on a global basis (commonly referred to in the industry as hashing capacity which is measured in Petahash units); and
     
  technological obsolescence reflecting rapid development in the transaction verification server industry such that more recently developed hardware is more economically efficient to run in terms of digital assets generated as a function of operating costs, primarily power costs i.e. the speed of hardware evolution in the industry is such that later hardware models generally have faster processing capacity combined with lower operating costs and a lower cost of purchase.

 

The Company operates in an emerging industry for which limited data is available to make estimates of the useful economic lives of specialized equipment. Property and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Subsequent to December 31, 2020, management has determined that the expected useful life of transaction verification servers would be five years. Prior to December 31, 2020, management depreciated these servers over two years. This assessment takes into consideration the availability of historical data and management’s expectations regarding the direction of the industry including potential changes in technology. Management will review this estimate annually and will revise such estimates as and when data comes available.

 

To the extent that any of the assumptions underlying management’s estimate of useful life of its transaction verification servers are subject to revision in a future reporting period either as a result of changes in circumstances or through the availability of greater quantities of data then the estimated useful life could change and have a prospective impact on depreciation expense and the carrying amounts of these assets.

 

Intangible Assets

 

Intangible assets include the Crypto Currency Patent with original estimated useful life of 17 years. The Company amortize the cost of the intangible assets over their estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis. Costs incurred to acquire patents, including legal costs, are also capitalized as long-lived assets and amortized on a straight-line basis with the associated patent.

 

The Company monitors the carrying value of long-lived assets for potential impairment and tests the recoverability of such assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable. If a change in circumstance occurs, the Company will perform a test of recoverability by comparing the carrying value of the asset or asset group to its undiscounted expected future cash flows. If cash flows cannot be separately and independently identified for a single asset, the Company will determine whether impairment has occurred for the group of assets for which we can identify the projected cash flows. If the carrying values are in excess of undiscounted expected future cash flows, the Company will measure any impairment by comparing the fair value of the asset or asset group to its carrying value. During the year ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, there was no impairment to the intangible assets.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

The Company recognizes revenue under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The core principle of the new revenue standard is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The following five steps are applied to achieve that core principle:

 

  Step 1: Identify the contract with the customer
     
  Step 2: Identify the performance obligations in the contract
     
  Step 3: Determine the transaction price
     
  Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract
     
  Step 5: Recognize revenue when the Company satisfies a performance obligation

 

In order to identify the performance obligations in a contract with a customer, a company must assess the promised goods or services in the contract and identify each promised good or service that is distinct. A performance obligation meets ASC 606’s definition of a “distinct” good or service (or bundle of goods or services) if both of the following criteria are met: The customer can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer (i.e., the good or service is capable of being distinct), and the entity’s promise to transfer the good or service to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract (i.e., the promise to transfer the good or service is distinct within the context of the contract).

 

If a good or service is not distinct, the good or service is combined with other promised goods or services until a bundle of goods or services is identified that is distinct.

 

The transaction price is the amount of consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to a customer. The consideration promised in a contract with a customer may include fixed amounts, variable amounts, or both. When determining the transaction price, an entity must consider the effects of all of the following:

 

  Variable consideration
     
  Constraining estimates of variable consideration
     
  The existence of a significant financing component in the contract
     
  Noncash consideration
     
  Consideration payable to a customer

 

Variable consideration is included in the transaction price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved.

 

The transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis.

 

The transaction price allocated to each performance obligation is recognized when that performance obligation is satisfied, at a point in time or over time as appropriate.

 

Providing computing power in crypto asset transaction verification services is an output of the Company’s ordinary activities. The provision of computing power is the only performance obligation in the Company’s contracts with third party pool operators. The transaction consideration the Company receives, if any, is noncash consideration, which the Company measures at fair value on the date received, which is not materially different than the fair value at contract inception. The consideration is all variable. Because it is not probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue will not occur, the consideration is constrained until the Company successfully places a block (by being the first to solve an algorithm) and the Company receives confirmation of the consideration it will receive, at which time revenue is recognized. There is no significant financing component in these transactions.

 

Fair value of the digital asset award received is determined using the average U.S. dollar spot rate of the related digital currency at the time of receipt.

 

Expenses associated with running the digital currency mining business, such as rent and electricity cost are also recorded as cost of revenues. Depreciation on digital currency mining equipment is recorded as a component of cost of revenues.

 

Related Party Transactions

 

Parties are considered related to the Company if the parties, directly or indirectly, through one or more intermediaries, control, are controlled by, or are under common control with the Company. Related parties also include principal owners of the Company, its management, members of the immediate families of principal owners of the Company and its management and other parties with which the Company may deal if one party controls or can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the other to an extent that one of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests. The Company discloses all related party transactions.

 

On October 11, 2018, the Company entered into a 2-year Employment Agreement, subject to successive 1 year extension, with Merrick Okamoto, pursuant to which Mr. Okamoto will serve as the Executive Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Company. Pursuant to the terms of the Agreement, Mr. Okamoto shall receive a base salary at an annual base salary of $350,000 (subject to annual 3% cost of living increase) and an annual bonus up to 100% of base salary as determined by the Compensation Committee or the Board. As further consideration for Mr. Okamoto’s services, the Company agreed to issue Mr. Okamoto 10-year stock options to purchase 1,250,000 shares of Common Stock, with a strike price of $2.32 per share, vesting 50% on the date of grant and 25% on each 6 months anniversary of the date of grant. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, no bonus has been accrued.

 

On July 22, 2019, the Company granted David Lieberman, James Crawford and other three board directors 5-year stock options to purchase total of 200,000 shares of common stock, with an exercise price of $2.04 per share, vesting 50% on the date of grant and 25% on each 6 months anniversary of the date of grant. On October 19, 2020, David Lieberman retired and at that time, his shares of common stock fully vested.

 

See Note 1 for a description of bonuses and restricted stock unit awards to related parties ratified by the Board of Directors as of December 31, 2020.

 

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

 

The Company measures at fair value certain of its financial and non-financial assets and liabilities by using a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, essentially an exit price, based on the highest and best use of the asset or liability. The levels of the fair value hierarchy are:

 

  Level 1: Observable inputs such as quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
  Level 2: Observable market-based inputs or unobservable inputs that are corroborated by market data
  Level 3: Unobservable inputs for which there is little or no market data, which require the use of the reporting entity’s own assumptions.

 

The carrying amounts reported in the consolidated balance sheet for cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued expenses, approximate their estimated fair market value based on the short-term maturity of these instruments. The carrying value of notes payable and other long-term liabilities approximate fair value as the related interest rates approximate rates currently available to the Company.

 

Financial assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety within the fair value hierarchy based on the lowest level of input that is significant to their fair value measurement. The Company measures the fair value of its marketable securities by taking into consideration valuations obtained from third-party pricing sources. The pricing services utilize industry standard valuation models, including both income and market-based approaches, for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly, to estimate fair value. These inputs included reported trades of and broker-dealer quotes on the same or similar securities, issuer credit spreads, benchmark securities and other observable inputs.

 

The following tables present information about the Company’s assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis and the Company’s estimated level within the fair value hierarchy of those assets and liabilities as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively:

 

    Fair value measured at December 31, 2020  
   

Total carrying

 value at

December 31,

   

Quoted prices in

active markets

   

Significant other

observable inputs

   

Significant

unobservable

inputs

 
    2020     (Level 1)     (Level 2)     (Level 3)  
Liabilities                                
Warrant liability   $ 322,437     $ -     $ -     $ 322,437  

 

    Fair value measured at December 31, 2019  
   

Total carrying

value at

December 31,

   

Quoted prices in

active markets

   

Significant other

observable inputs

   

Significant

unobservable

inputs

 
    2019     (Level 1)     (Level 2)     (Level 3)  
Liabilities                                
Warrant liability   $ 12,849     $ -     $ -     $ 12,849  

 

There were no transfers between Level 1, 2 or 3 during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.

 

At December 31, 2020, the Company had an outstanding warrant liability in the amount of $322,437 associated with warrants that were issued in January 2017 and warrants issued related to the Convertible Notes issued in August and September of 2017. The following table rolls forward the fair value of the Company’s warrant liability, the fair value of which is determined by Level 3 inputs for the year ended December 31, 2020.

 

FV of warrant liabilities

 

    Fair value  
Outstanding as of December 31, 2018   $ 39,083  
Change in fair value of warrants     (26,234 )
Outstanding as of December 31, 2019   $ 12,849  
Change in fair value of warrants     309,588  
Outstanding as of December 31, 2020   $ 322,437  

 

The fair value of the warrant liabilities are marked-to-market each reporting period and changes in fair value are recorded as a non-operating gain or loss in our statement of operations, until they are completely exercised. The fair value is determined each reporting period using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and is affected by changes in inputs to that model including our stock price, expected stock price volatility, dividends, interest rates and expected term. The assumptions used in valuing the warrant liability as of the year ended December 31, 2020 were exercise price of $4.80 per share; implied stock price of $10.44; expected volatility of 44.47%; expected dividend rate of 0%; risk free interest rate of 1.70%; and expiration date of 2.17 years.

 

Income Taxes

 

The Company accounts for income taxes pursuant to the provision of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 740-10, “Accounting for Income Taxes” which requires, among other things, an asset and liability approach to calculating deferred income taxes. The asset and liability approach requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amounts and the tax bases of assets and liabilities. A valuation allowance is provided to offset any net deferred tax assets for which management believes it is more likely than not that the net deferred asset will not be realized.

 

The Company follows the provision of the ASC 740-10 related to Accounting for Uncertain Income Tax Position. When tax returns are filed, it is more likely than not that some positions taken would be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities, while others are subject to uncertainty about the merits of the position taken or the amount of the position that would be ultimately sustained. In accordance with the guidance of ASC 740-10, the benefit of a tax position is recognized in the financial statements in the period during which, based on all available evidence, management believes it is most likely that not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including the resolution of appeals or litigation processes, if any. Tax positions taken are not offset or aggregated with other positions.

 

Tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold are measured as the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon settlement with the applicable taxing authority. The portion of the benefits associated with tax positions taken that exceeds the amount measured as described above should be reflected as a liability for uncertain tax benefits in the accompanying balance sheet along with any associated interest and penalties that would be payable to the taxing authorities upon examination. The Company believes its tax positions will more likely than not be upheld upon examination. As such, the Company has not recorded a liability for uncertain tax benefits.

 

Basic and Diluted Net Loss per Share

 

Net loss per common share is calculated in accordance with ASC Topic 260: Earnings Per Share (“ASC 260”). Basic loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. The computation of diluted net loss per share does not include dilutive common stock equivalents in the weighted average shares outstanding, as they would be anti-dilutive.

 

Securities that could potentially dilute loss per share in the future that were not included in the computation of diluted loss per share at December 31, 2020 and 2019 are as follows:

 

    As of December 31,  
    2020     2019  
Warrants to purchase common stock     287,656       182,191  
Options to purchase common stock     106,120       1,731,745  
Convertible notes to exchange common stock     -       312,221  
Total     393,776       2,226,157  


 

The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted loss per share:

 

    For the Years Ended December 31,  
    2020     2019  
Net loss attributable to common shareholders   $ (10,447,771 )   $ (3,517,065 )
                 
Denominator:                
Weighted average common shares - basic and diluted     81,408,340       6,664,238  
                 
Loss per common share - basic and diluted   $ (0.13 )   $ (0.53 )

 

Impairment of Long-lived Assets

 

Management reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. Subsequent to year end, on January 14, 2021, the Company sold its inventory of approximately 5,900 S9, 13.5 TH/s miners for $616,236. As of December 31, 2020, these assets had a net book value of $1,487,538. As such, management determined that those crypto-currency machines were impaired by a total of $871,302 based upon an assessment as of December 31, 2020. During the year ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company’s leasehold improvements were impaired by $0 and $447,776, respectively.

 

Stock-Based Compensation

 

The Company expenses stock-based compensation to employees and non-employees over the requisite service period based on the estimated grant-date fair value of the awards and forfeiture rates. The Company estimates the fair value of stock option grants using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and the assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based awards represent management’s best estimates and involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment. These assumptions are the expected stock volatility, the risk–free interest rate, the expected life of the option, the dividend yield on the underlying stock and the expected forfeiture rate. Expected volatility is calculated based on the historical volatility of the Company’s common stock over the expected term of the option. Risk–free interest rates are calculated based on continuously compounded risk–free rates for the appropriate term.

 

Leases

 

Effective January 1, 2019, the Company accounts for its leases under ASC 842, Leases. Under this guidance, arrangements meeting the definition of a lease are classified as operating or financing leases and are recorded on the consolidated balance sheet as both a right of use asset and lease liability, calculated by discounting fixed lease payments over the lease term at the rate implicit in the lease or the Company’s incremental borrowing rate. Lease liabilities are increased by interest and reduced by payments each period, and the right of use asset is amortized over the lease term. For operating leases, interest on the lease liability and the amortization of the right of use asset result in straight-line rent expense over the lease term. Variable lease expenses, if any, are recorded when incurred.

 

In calculating the right of use asset and lease liability, the Company elected to combine lease and non-lease components. The Company excluded short-term leases having initial terms of 12 months or less from the new guidance as an accounting policy election and recognizes rent expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

 

The Company continues to account for leases in the prior period financial statements under ASC Topic 840.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

In December 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”)”, which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

 

In November 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-10, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), and Leases (Topic 842): Effective Dates, which, among other items, allows public business entities that qualify as smaller reporting companies for SEC reporting purposes additional time to implement the guidance related to FASB ASC 326. Under ASU 2019-10, the effective date for such entities is deferred to fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2022. Earlier application is still allowed for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

 

In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, “Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting”, which simplifies the accounting for share-based payments granted to nonemployees for goods and services. Under the ASU, most of the guidance on such payments to nonemployees would be aligned with the requirements for share-based payments granted to employees. The changes take effect for public companies for fiscal years starting after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that fiscal year. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than an entity’s adoption date of Topic 606. On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted this ASU and the adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-11, “Earnings Per Share (Topic 260) Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480) Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815),” which addresses the complexity of accounting for certain financial instruments with down round features. Down round features are features of certain equity-linked instruments (or embedded features) that result in the strike price being reduced on the basis of the pricing of future equity offerings. Current accounting guidance creates cost and complexity for entities that issue financial instruments (such as warrants and convertible instruments) with down round features that require fair value measurement of the entire instrument or conversion option. For public business entities, the amendments in Part I of this Update are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018 with early adoption permitted. On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted this ASU and the adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) in order to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by, among other provisions, recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet for those leases classified as operating leases under previous GAAP. For public companies, ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 (including interim periods within those periods) using a modified retrospective approach and early adoption is permitted. In transition, entities may also elect a package of practical expedients that must be applied in its entirety to all leases commencing before the adoption date, unless the lease is modified, and permits entities to not reassess (a) the existence of a lease, (b) lease classification or (c) determination of initial direct costs, as of the adoption date, which effectively allows entities to carryforward accounting conclusions under previous U.S. GAAP. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, which provides entities an optional transition method to apply the guidance under Topic 842 as of the adoption date, rather than as of the earliest period presented. The Company adopted Topic 842 on January 1, 2019, using the optional transition method to apply the new guidance as of January 1, 2019, rather than as of the earliest period presented, and elected the package of practical expedients described above. Based on the analysis, on January 1, 2019, the Company recorded right of use assets of approximately $388,425, lease liability of approximately $289,283 and eliminated deferred rent of approximately $99,141.

 

Any new accounting standards, not disclosed above, that have been issued or proposed by FASB that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements upon adoption.